Place butter into a 10-inch cast iron skillet. Place skillet into an oven and turn on to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) to allow butter to melt, 2 to 4 minutes.
While butter melts, mix together flour, sugar, poppy seeds, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and cardamom in a large bowl.
When butter has fully melted, remove skillet from oven and gently swirl to coat bottom with butter. Pour melted butter over the dry ingredients, and set skillet aside. Stir melted butter into dry ingredients a few times to allow it to cool slightly. Add buttermilk, eggs, vanilla, and almond extracts and mix just until batter has no dry clumps of flour in it.
Pour batter into the skillet and spread into an even layer. Sprinkle halved strawberries evenly over the top and place skillet into the oven.
Bake in the preheated oven until a toothpick inserted into the center of the cake comes out with a few moist crumbs, 55 to 60 minutes. If cake begins to over-brown at any point during baking process, turn the oven temperature down to 325 degrees F (165 degrees C) and continue to bake until done (baking time will vary with a lower oven temperature). Allow cake to cool before slicing.