Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). Line a muffin tin with paper liners.
Mix flour, raisins, 1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons sugar, caraway seeds, baking powder, salt, and baking soda in a large bowl.
Whisk buttermilk and egg together in a small bowl. Stir into flour mixture. Fold butter into the batter.
Spoon batter into the prepared muffin tin.
Bake in the preheated oven until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean, 20 to 30 minutes.