Heat a heavy-bottomed soup pot over medium-high heat. Cook and stir ground beef in the hot skillet until browned and crumbly, 5 to 7 minutes. Drain and discard grease.
Add onion and garlic. Cook over medium to medium-high heat, stirring often, until onions begin to soften, about 5 minutes. Add taco seasoning; cook and stir until fragrant, 1 to 2 minutes. Stir in black beans, corn, and diced tomatoes. Stir in tomato juice and scrape any browned bits of food off the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon.
Bring to a simmer; add cilantro and squeeze juice from lime halves into the pot. Simmer until flavors have melded, 15 to 20 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.